UNIT CONVERSIONS

AREA  [L2]
1 square centimeter = 0.155 square inch
1 square meter = 10.764 square feet
1 hectare = 2.471 acres
1 hectare = 10,000 square meters
1 square kilometer = 0.3861 square miles
1 hectare = 0.003861 square miles
1 square inch = 6.4516 square centimeters
1 square foot = 0.0929` square meters
1 acre = 0.4047 hectares
1 acre = 43,560 square feet
1 square mile = 2.59 square kilometers
1 square mile = 259 hectares


DENSITY  [M L-3]
1000 kilograms per cubic meter = 1.94 slugs per cubic foot
1 slug per cubic foot = 515.5 kilograms per cubic meter


DISCHARGE (FLOW RATE)  [L3 T -1]
1 cubic meter per second = 35.315 cubic foot per second
1 cubic foot per second = 0.028317 cubic meters per second
1000 gallons per minute (1000 gpm) = 2.228 cubic feet per second
1 million gallons per day = 0.04381 cubic meters per second


ENERGY (WORK OR QUANTITY OF HEAT) [F L]
1 joule = 1 newton-meter
1 joule = 0.7375 foot-pound
1 calorie = 4.184 joules
1 kilowatt-hour = 3,414 Btu
1 kilowatt-hour = 3,600,000 joules
1 Btu = 777.76 foot-pound
1 foot-pound = 1.3558 joules
1 Btu = 1,054.5 joules
1 Btu = 0.0002929 kilowatt-hour
1 Btu = 252 calories


ENERGY PER UNIT AREA  [F L L-2]
1 langley = 1 calorie per square centimeter


FORCE (WEIGHT)  [F]
1 newton = 0.22482 pounds
1 kilogram = 2.2046 pounds
1 kilogram = 9.806 newtons
1 metric ton = 1000 kilograms
1 metric ton = 9.806 kilonewtons
1 metric ton = 2204.6 pounds
1 pound = 4.448 newtons
1 pound = 0.4536 kilograms
1 ton = 2000 pounds
1 ton = 0.9072 metric tons


LENGTH (DISTANCE)  [L]
1 millimeter = 0.03937 inches
1 centimeter = 0.3937 inches
1 meter = 3.2808 feet
1 kilometer = 0.62137 miles
1 meter= 1.0936 yards
1 inch = 25.4 millimeters
1 inch = 2.54 centimeters
1 foot = 0.3048 meters
1 mile = 1.609344 kilometers
1 yard = 0.9144 meters


MASS  [M]
1 kilogram = 2.2046 pounds
1 kilogram = 0.068522 slugs
1 pound = 0.4536 kilograms
1 slug = 14.5939 kilograms


POWER  [F L T -1]
1 watt = 1 joule per second
1 watt = 1 newton-meter per second
1 kilowatt = 1.341 horsepower
1 horsepower = 550 foot-pound per second
1 horsepower = 0.7457 kilowatts


PRESSURE  [F L-2]
1 pascal = 1 newton per square meter
1 kilopascal = 1000 pascal
1 kilopascal = 0.145045 lbs per square inch
1 lb per square inch = 6.8944 kilopascals
1 lb per square inch = 6894.4 pascals


SPECIFIC WEIGHT  [F L-3]
1 newton per cubic meter = 0.006366195 pounds per cubic foot
1 pound per cubic foot = 157.08 newtons per cubic meter


VELOCITY  [L T -1]
1 meter per second = 3.2808 feet per second
1 kilometer per hour = 0.62137 miles per hour
1 foot per second = 0.3048 meters per second
1 mile per hour = 1.60935 kilometers per hour


VISCOSITY (ABSOLUTE)  [F T L-2]
1 poise = 0.1 newton-second per square meter
1 poise = 0.002088647 lb-second per square foot
1 centipoise = 0.01 poise
1 lb-second per square foot = 478.779 poise
1 lb-second per square foot= 47,877.9 centipoise


VISCOSITY (KINEMATIC)  [L2 T -1]
1 stoke = 1 square centimeter per second
1 centistoke = 0.01 stoke
1 centistoke = 0.000001 square meter per second
1 centistoke = 0.000010764 square feet per second
1 square foot per second = 929.0227 stoke
1 square foot per second = 92,902.27 centistoke


VOLUME  [L3]
1 liter = 0.26417 U.S. gallons
1 liter = 0.035315 cubic feet
1 liter = 0.001 cubic meter
1 cubic meter = 35,315 cubic feet
1 cubic meter= 1.3079 cubic yards
1 cubic meter = 264.17 U.S. gallons
1 cubic hectometer = 1 million cubic meters
1 cubic hectometer = 810.713 acre·feet
10,000 cubic meters = 4.08734 (ft3/s)·day
1 U.S. gallon = 3. 78541 liters
1 cubic foot = 28.3168 liters
1 U.S. gallon = 0.13368 cubic feet
1 cubic foot = 0.0283168 cubic meters
1 cubic yard = 0.76458 cubic meters
1 million U.S. gallons = 3,785.41 cubic meters
1 million cubic feet = 28,316.84 cubic meters
1 acre·foot = 1233.48 cubic meters
1 (ft3/s)·day = 2446.58 cubic meters
1 (ft3/s)-day = 1.98347 acre-feet



COMMON CONSTANTS

GRAVITATIONAL ACCELERATION
9.806 meters per square second
980.6 centimeters per square second
32.17 feet per square second


DENSITY OF WATER (AT 4°C)
1000 kilograms per cubic meter
1 gram per cubic centimeter
1.94 slugs per cubic foot
1.94 (lb-f)-s2/ft4


SPECIFIC WEIGHT OF WATER
At 4°C and 760 mm Hg:
9.806 kilonewtons per cubic meter
At 20.2°C and 760 mm Hg:
9.789 kilonewtons per cubic meter

62.43 lb-f per cubic foot

62.32 lb-f per cubic foot


STANDARD SEA-LEVEL ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
1013.25 millibars
1033.6 gm/cm2
101.325 kilonewtons per square meter
101.325 kilopascals
760 mm Hg
10.336 meters of H2O
14.696 lb per square inch
29.92 inches Hg
33.91 feet of H2O



1405608

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ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY, PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES

VICTOR M. PONCE

•  SECOND EDITION - ONLINE  •

Contents

Chapter 01

Chapter 02

Chapter 03

Chapter 04

Chapter 05

Units

Chapter 06

Chapter 07

Chapter 08

Chapter 09

Chapter 10

    • IN PROGRESS 2014 05 15 •    

Appendix

Chapter 11

Chapter 12

Chapter 13

Chapter 14

Chapter 15

Copyright © 2014 • Victor M. Ponce • All rights reserved