What is a chute?

A chute is a canal of very steep slope.

What is an aqueduct?

An aqueduct is a
canal to transport water for a specific use,
typically over terrain, or elevated over a valley, stream or road.

What is a culvert?

A culvert is a covered conduit (or conduits) of relatively short length, usually flowing partially full, to enable a stream to cross a highway or other embankment.

What is potamology?

Potamology is the scientific study of rivers.

What is sinuosity in connection with rivers?

Sinuosity is
the ratio of stream length to valley length.

What is a hydraulically wide channel?

A channel is hydraulically wide when the
wetted perimeter *P* can be approximated by the top width *T*.

What ratio of top width to hydraulic depth can be considered hydraulically wide?

A channel may be considered hydraulically wide if the top width *T*
is greater than or equal to 10 times the hydraulic depth *D*.

What is the typical range of the exponent *β* for trapezoidal channels?

Typical values of *β*
for trapezoidal channels lie approximately in the range 1.35 ≤ *β* ≤ 1.65.

What is the most common type of current meter in the United States?

The most common type of cup meter is the Price current meter, which has six cups mounted on a vertical axis.

Why is the true velocity head greater than the velocity head computed based on mean
velocity?

Due to the nonuniform velocity distribution over a cross section,
the true velocity head is greater than the velocity head computed based on the mean velocity.

How does energy differ from momentum?

Energy is the integral of a force over a distance; momentum is the integral of
the force over time. Energy is steady; momentum is unsteady.

How does the pressure distribution in the vertical vary under parallel flow?

Under parallel flow, the pressure distribution
is essentially hydrostatic, with the pressure varying as a linear function of partial flow depth.

How does the pressure distribution in the vertical vary under convex curvilinear flow?

Under convex curvilinear, the pressure distribution is nonhydrostatic,
with the pressure along the flow depth varying as a nonlinear function of partial flow depth.
A piezometer located at the partial depth below the water surface would rise to an elevation
which is lower than the water surface elevation.

How does the pressure distribution in the vertical vary under concave curvilinear flow?

Under convex curvilinear, the pressure distribution is nonhydrostatic,
with the pressure along the flow depth varying as a nonlinear function of partial flow depth.
A piezometer located at the partial depth below the water surface would rise to an elevation
which is higher than the water surface elevation.

What is a channel of large slope?

A channel with slope greater than 10% is referred to as a channel of large slope.
For a slope greater than 10%, the error in taking the vertical depth *y* in lieu of the pressure rise *h* is more than 1%.