1. Give two alternate definitions of particle sphericity.

2. What is the difference between specific weight and specific gravity?

3. What is standard fall velocity? What is standard fall diameter?

4. What is the difference between sediment production and sediment yield?

5. Describe the differences between normal and accelerated erosion.

6. Name four sources of sediment.

7. What is the rainfall factor R in the Universal Soil Loss Equation?

8. What is sedimentá delivery ratio?

9. Why is sediment-delivery ratio inversely related to drainage-basin area?

10. Why are two formulas needed in the Dendy and Bolton approach to the computation of sediment yield?

11. Describe the classifications of sediment load based on (1) predominant mode of transport and (2) whether the particle sizes are represented on the channel bed.

12. What are possible forms of bed roughness in alluvia! channels?

13. What is range of applicability of the Meyer-Peter formula for bed-load transport?

14. What is the basic difference between the Colby 1957 and Colby 1964 procedures for the computation of discharge of sands?

15. What is a sediment rating curve?

16. What is sediment routing?

17. What is the trap efficiency of a reservoir?

18. What is a debris basin?

19. Describe two techniques to measure suspended-sediment discharge. How do they differ in the evaluation of suspended-sediment concentration?
PROBLEMS

1. Calculate the fall velocity of a sediment particle using Stokes' law. Assume a diameter mm, kinematic viscosity 1 centistoke, specific gravity 2.65.

2. Calculate the specific weight of a sediment deposit in a reservoir, after an elapsed time of 100 y, under moderate drawdown conditions. Assume the following mix of particle sizes: sand 55%, silt 30%, clay 15%.

3. Compute the average annual soil loss by the universal soil loss equation for a 300-ac watershed near Lexington, Kentucky, with the following conditions: (1) cropland, 250 ac, contoured, soil is Keen silt loam, slopes are 7% and 150 ft long, C = 0.15; (2) pasture, 50 acres, 75% canopy cover, 60% ground cover with grass, soil is Ida silt loam, slopes are 10% and 200 ft long.

4. Compute the average annual soil loss by the universal soil loss equation for a 1-mi2 forested watershed near Bangor, Maine. The soil is Fayette silt loam, the slopes are 3% and 300 ft long, and the site is 80% covered by forest litter.

5. Using the Dendy and Bolton formula, calculate the sediment yield for a 25.9-km2 watershed with 5 cm of mean annual runoff.

6. Determine whether a particle of 2-mm diameter is at rest under a 3-m flow depth and 0.0002 channel slope. Assume a specific gravity 2.65 and kinematic viscosity 1 centistoke.

7. Determine the form of bed roughness that is likely to prevail under the following flow conditions: mean velocity 3 ft / s, flow depth 8 ft, channel slope 0.0002, and mean particle diameter 0.3 mm.

8. Given the following flow characteristics: flow depth 9 ft. mean velocity 3 ft l s, channel slope 0.00015, mean particle diameter 0.4 mm, mean channel width 250 ft. Calculate the bed material transport rate by the Duboys formula.

9. Given the following flow characteristics: flow depth 3 ft, mean velocity 5 ft / s, energy slope 0.009, mean particle diameter 1.0 in., mean channel width 30 ft. Calculate the bedámaterial transport rate (in tons per day) by the Meyer-Peter formula.

10. Given the following flow characteristics: flow depth 5 ft, mean velocity 4 ft / s, mean channel width 180 ft, measured concentration of suspended bed-materialdischarge 200 ppm. Calculate the total bed-material discharge (in tons per day) by the Colby 1957 method.

11. Given the following flow characteristics: flow depth 5 ft, mean velocity 3 ft / s, median bed material size 0.3 mm, mean channel width 225 ft, water temperature 70°F, wash load concentration 300 ppm. Calculate the discharge of sands by the Colby 1964 method.

12. A reservoir is to be built with a total storage capacity of 50 hm3. The contributing drainage basin is 800 km2, and the mean annual runoff at the site is 200 mm. Assume well-graded sediment deposits with average specific weight 1400 kg/ m3. (a) How long will it take for the reservoir to lose 20% of its storage volume? (b) How long will it take for the reservoir to fill up with sediment? Estimate sediment yield by the Dendy and Bolton formula.

13. A reservoir is to be built with a total storage capacity of 120 hm3. The contributing drainage basin is 425 km2, and the mean annual runoff at the site is 45 mm. Assume coarse sediment deposits with average specific weight 13 kN/ m3 (a) How long will it take for the reservoir to lose 80% of its storage volume? (b) How long will it take for the reservoir to fill up with sediment? Estimate sediment yield by the Dendy and Bolton formula.

14. Derive the conversion factor 0.0027 in Eq. 15-26.

15. Calculate the suspended-sediment discharge (in tons per day) for the following cases: (1) suspended sediment concentration 100 ppm, water discharge 1200 ft3 / s, and (2) suspended sediment concentration 80,000 ppm. and water discharge 5000 ft3 / s.

16. Derive the unit conversion factor C in the following formula: Qs = CCsQ, in which Qs is given in kilonewtons per day, Cs in milligrams per liter, and Q in cubic meters per second.

17. Calculate the suspended-sediment discharge (in kilonewtons per day) for a suspendedsediment concentration of 150 ppm and a flow of 68 m3/s.

18. Calculate the suspended-sediment discharge (in kilonewtons per day) for a suspendedsediment concentration of 22,000 ppm and a flow of 155 m3/ s.
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